California's Pot Farms Could Leave Salmon Runs Truly
January 13, 2014
By Alastair Bland, The Salt
For many users and advocates of marijuana, the boom in the West Coast growing industry may be all good and groovy. But in California, critics say the recent explosion of the marijuana industry along the state's North Coast — a region called the "emerald triangle" — could put a permanent buzz kill on struggling salmon populations.
The problem? According to critics, marijuana plantations guzzle enormous amounts of water while also spilling pesticides, fertilizers and stream-clogging sediments into waterways, including the Eel and the Klamath rivers, that have historically produced large numbers of Chinook salmon and related species.
"The whole North Coast is being affected by these pot growers," says Dave Bitts, a Humboldt County commercial fisherman and the president of the Pacific Coast Federation of Fishermen's Associations.
"I have nothing against people growing dope," he says, "but if you do, we want you to grow your crop in a way that doesn't screw up fish habitat. There is no salmon-bearing watershed at this point that we can afford to sacrifice."
Growers of marijuana often withdraw water directly from small streams and use up to 6 gallons per day per plant during the summer growing season, says Scott Bauer, a fisheries biologist with the California Department of Fish and Wildlife.
"When you have 20,000 or 30,000 plants in a watershed, that is a lot of water," Bauer says.
But marijuana growers are undeservedly taking the blame for a problem that is caused by all residents of the North Coast, argues Kristin Nevedal, a founding chairperson with the Emerald Growers Association.
New fish ladder to boost Coho spawning in Graton creek
January 9, 2014
By Guy Kovner, The Press Democrate
As soon as it rains, coho salmon likely will swim up a small creek to a spawning ground in the west Sonoma County hills that has been impassable to the species for decades.
When they come to the culvert where Purrington Creek flows under Graton Road about 3 miles southwest of Graton, the endangered coho will get a boost, literally, from a concrete fish ladder set in the narrow streambed.
The $366,000 project, completed by Sonoma County crews in November, will make it “easy for even the weakest fish” to reach a nearly mile-long stretch of the creek upstream from the culvert, said Luke Walton, a hydraulic engineer who designed the project.
It's the latest improvement in a two-decade, multimillion-dollar effort to improve Sonoma County coho habitat and restore the population of a prized wild fish that once flourished along the North Coast but teetered near extinction in 2000.
Up to 500,000 coho spawned in Northern California rivers in the 1940s, dwindling to about 5,000 by the mid-1990s.
Purrington Creek, a rare year-round waterway, flows into Green Valley Creek, the last of the streams in the 1,485-square-mile Russian River watershed known to support a significant coho population.
“Purrington's got a lot of good things going for it,” said Derek Acomb, a state Department of Fish and Wildlife planner for the local watershed.
A 2003 study of 125 stream crossings at Sonoma County roads identified the concrete box culvert under Graton Road as a “high-priority” obstacle to the coho, which swim up to 150 miles from the ocean to lay eggs in gravel streambeds.
Purrington was on a “short list” of fish passage problems, but it took years to secure the funding for a fix, Acomb said.
Enabling coho to swim through the culvert will open up 4,700 feet of potential spawning habitat in the midst of an 887-acre watershed.
Drought Could Push Endangered Salmon to the Brink
January 8, 2014
By Joe Rosato Jr., NBC Bay Area News,
Biologist Preston Brown scampered down the rocks of the creek bank in Samuel P. Taylor State Park in West Marin County, stepping gingerly toward the water’s edge.
The creek was known as the “ink wells” because it resembled a series of hollowed-out bowls leading up stream. In a normal year, federally-endangered Coho salmon will leap from bowl to bowl on their way upstream to their spawning grounds. But this year’s lack of rain has made that same journey a harrowing venture.
“Normally this time of year there’s a lot more water running over the falls,” observed Brown, a watershed biologist with the environmental group S.P.A.W.N.
The Coho’s long, instinctive journey from ocean to birthing ground is triggered by rain – winter rains also fill in the creeks and streams making the passage easier.
Brown said this year, his group hasn’t recorded a single fish on the small tributaries that feed the larger creeks.
“They typically are spawning up in the valley this time of year,” Brown said. “But because of the lack of rain, a lot of the tributaries they normally spawn in are not even flowing with water.”
Naturalists point-out salmon have survived droughts in the past. But that was back when their numbers reached the thousands along the warren of meandering creeks and streams of West Marin. Now, their numbers are in the mid-hundreds during a good year.
“Every year the salmon don’t come back is another bad year for the salmon,” said Teri Shore of the Turtle Island Restoration Network. “It continues to build toward their extinction unfortunately.”Greg Andrew, the district’s Fishery Program Manager said spotters recorded up to 130 salmon on the main creek in Samuel Taylor State Park so far this year. In a normal year of rain, the number is around 500. Still, he said the increased water flows may be helping.
Andrew said in the last 18 months, the area has received only about 44 inches of rain. He said in a normal year the number is between 52 – 58 inches.
During a walk Tuesday along the creek, Brown spotted a school of five salmon darting in and out of the shadows of a deep pool. A large female salmon was accompanied by several males near her nest, known as a "red." Although the migration usually winds up around January, Brown was hopeful Mother Nature might still turn on the waterworks in time for this year's returning fish.
“Hopefully that can improve over the next few months if we do get some rain,” he said.
Scant December rainfall makes Marin harder to reach for endangered coho
January 6, 2014
By Mark Prado, Marin Independent Journal,
Marin's federally endangered coho salmon should be hitting the peak of their annual run right about now, but they are few and far between because of the lack of rain.
In fact, aside from a population crash of the species in 2008-09, the number of coho and their egg nests seen to date are the fewest in 17 years, since their numbers were first recorded by the Marin Municipal Water District.
The number is especially disappointing to biologists who were expecting a robust run.
"The lack of rain becomes a factor that complicates the story," said Greg Andrew, fishery program manager for the water district.
December rains typically help facilitate the return of the coho from the sea to their spawning grounds. The coho complete a three-year lifecycle in which they are born in streams, travel to open sea, then return to their native creeks to spawn and die.
The species was said to be in an "extinction vortex" after numbers dipped to all-time lows four years ago, but numbers have been on the rise since then and it was believed — with some good rain — this could be a strong year for the fish.
But December's rainfall has been minuscule: 1.17 inches. The average is 9.61 inches, as measured at Lake Lagunitas by the water district.
"The fish are still trickling into the creeks and there is active spawning, but in low numbers overall," Andrew said. "Hopefully we will get some good rains in the first part of the year."
Riverkeeper and Karuk tribe settle suit against Montague Water Conservation
January 3, 2014
By David Smith, SiskiyouDaily,as parties signed an agreement that ends a lawsuit alleging harm to Coho salmon in the Shasta River system.
Klamath Riverkeeper initiated the suit in 2012, alleging that actions under the Montague Water Conservation District’s jurisdiction – including operation of Dwinnell Dam and Lake Shastina – result in the illegal “take” of Southern Oregon/Northern California Coast Coho salmon, a species unit listed under the Endangered Species Act.
The settlement agreement lays out the required allocations of water coming from Lake Shastina into the Shasta River system.
The standard is prescribed as 2,250 or 3,000 acre-feet per year, dependent on whether the the water storage volume in Lake Shastina is less than or greater than 18,000 acre-feet.
The agreement also guarantees that each year the MWCD will receive at least 20,500 dedicated acre-feet for irrigation, domestic and municipal purposes.
In addition to minimum water deliveries for environmental and agricultural purposes, the agreement requires MWCD to obtain Clean Water Act permits and California Environmental Quality Act review, and provides a number of requisite changes to the Shasta River system to address environmental quality standards. Included in the list is a fish screen at the Parks Creek diversion, the installation of a lining on the MWCD’s main canal, a maintenance plan for the proposed changes and a water management and operations plan for the operation of MWCD's facilities.
The agreement calls for the reimbursement of attorney’s fees and costs incurred by the litigation, which requires MWCD to pay $550,000 to Klamath Riverkeeper and the Karuk Tribe over the course of six years, beginning with an initial payment of $150,000 within 10 days of the signing of the agreement.
In exchange for the agreement, the plaintiffs – the Karuk Tribe and Riverkeeper – agree to not file court claims requiring that MWCD: build fish ladders at Dwinnell Dam, pay for fish passage measures beyond Lake Shastina or remove Dwinnell Dam. According to the agreement, the court claim requirement will be in effect for 30 years.